Paper delivered at 6th Intercultural Pragmatics & Communication Conference
University of Malta
Olivier Méric / Laurent Gautier (Université de Bourgogne, EA4182, France)
Issue and aim: Regarding their professional competences, most people working in contact with tourists admit they need to master communication competences in various languages. The Common European Framework (2000 : 108) defines them at three interconnected levels represented by linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic components. The latter is often eluded in the learning process; however, it is part of the discourse, and it has to be trained to reach a decent level of active inter-cultural communication. Furthermore, the communicative performance of tourist guides relies on the way they handle this competence to manage their group.
Data: Willing to evidence the inter-cultural pragmatic competences within tourist guide discourses, two French corpora have been made, one of traveller and guide interactions and the second one of audio-guides. According to Gunnarsson (2009) and Petit (2010), both corpora are representative of professional texts but the first one is made of spontaneous interactions built thanks to pragmatic elements while the second one stems from redacted texts following scenarios where pragmatic elements are reduced to theatrical effects (Gautier and Méric, 2014).
Methodology: Within a sociolinguistic cognitive/usage-based approach (Geeraerts, 2003; Geeraerts, Kristiansen Peirsman, 2010; Kristiansen Dirven, 2008), the use of collostructional analysis (Gries 2012 : 479) to describe and compare the two corpus distributions will reveal the pragmatic characteristics (Barron Schneider 2009 : 429). A qualitative analysis of speech acts and scripts will complete the variational pragmatic description (Schneider 2012 : 348) also on the basis of an adapted version of the proximity-distance-continuum (Koch/Österreicher 2011).
Discussion: The results will help to shape the involved discourse and functional competences which are the main elements of the pragmatic competences needed by the future tourist guides coming from a different cultural background. Then, propositions will be suggested to improve flexibility, turn taking, thematic development, coherence and cohesion, spoken fluency and propositional precision which are the Common European Framework (2000 : 124-129) scales to evaluate the pragmatic competence.
Barron, A., & Schneider, K. P., 2009, “Variational pragmatics: Studying the impact of social factors on language use in interaction”, in A. Barron & K. P. Schneider (Eds.), Variational Pragmatics.Special Issue.Intercultural Pragmatics, 6:4, 425-442.
Council of Europe, 2000, Common European Framework of references for languages: Learning, Teaching, assessment,Cambridge University Press, [on line] available at http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_en.pdf(last access 16/12/2013) ISBN : HB 0521803136 – PB 0521005310
Gautier, L. & Méric, O., (2014), “Contextes culturels et cognitifs dans la traduction/adaptation du discours des guides touristiques”, in : Condei, C., Gautier, L., & Teodorescu, C. (Eds), La traduction spécialisée: Approches et modèles. Contexte(s), discours, médiation, Berlin, Frank & Timme.
Geeraerts, D., Kristiansen, G., & Peirsman, Y. (Eds.), 2010, Advances in Cognitive Sociolinguistics, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
Gries, Stefan Th., (2012), “Frequencies, probabilities, and association measures in usage-/exemplar-based linguistics”, in Gisborne, N. and Hollmann, W. (Eds.), Theory and data in cognitive linguistics. Special issue of Studies in Language, 36:3, 477–510.
Gunnarsson, B.-L., 2009, Professional Discourse, London/New-York, Continuum International Publishing Group.
Koch, P., & Oesterreicher, W., 2011, Gesprochene Sprache in der Romania: Französisch, Italienisch, Spanisch, Berlin, de Gruyter.
Kristiansen, G., & Dirven, R. (Eds.), 2008, Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Language variation, cultural models, social systems, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
Petit, M., 2010, Le discours spécialisé et le spécialisé du discours : repères pour l’analyse du discours en anglais de spécialité,E-rea [En ligne], disponible à http://erea.revues.org/1400(dernier accès le 30/09/2013); DOI : 10.4000/erea.1400
Schneider, K. P., 2012, “Pragmatic variation and cultural models”, in: Pütz, M., Robinson, J. A. and Reif, M. (Eds.), Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and cultural variation in cognition language use. Special issue of Review of Cognitive Linguistics 10:2, 346-372.